### Classification

*Binary Classification* results in a decision that is either true or false.

Binary classification Examples:

- Classify whether a medical case is positive or negative, or whether an image contains a hotdog or not a hotdog.
- Classify whether an email is spam or not spam.

*Multi-class classification* categorizes examples in one of several potential categories (always three or more).

Multi-class classification Examples:

- Classifying whether air quality is poor, moderate, or severe.
- Classifying text into topics such as sports, entertainment, politics, and so on.

### Cross-Entropy Loss

*Cross-entropy* is a score that summarizes the average difference between the actual and predicted probability distributions for all classes. In a classification model, the goal is to minimize the score, with a perfect cross-entropy value is 0.

We can calculate cross-entropy loss by using the `log_loss()`

function in scikit-learn.

```
# example implementation of cross-entropy loss
true_labels = [1, 0, 0]
predicted_labels = [0.7, 0.2, 0.1]
print(log_loss(true_labels, predicted_labels))
```

### Preparing Your Data

To prepare data for cross-entropy loss analysis, you can use the `to_categorical()`

function in TensorFlow’s Keras API to convert labels into one-hot-encodings.

```
updated_y_train = tensorflow.keras.utils.to_categorical(y_train, dtype = 'int64')
updated_y_test = tensorflow.keras.utils.to_categorical(y_test, dtype = 'int64')
```

### F1-Score

In a deep learning classification model, an *F1-score* can be used to evaluate how our model performs based on how poorly it makes false negative mistakes.

In the code snippet shown, we do the following:

- predict classes for all test cases
`my_test`

using the scikit-learn`.predict()`

method and assign the result to the`yhat_classes`

variable. - convert the one-hot-encoded labels
`my_test_labels`

into the index of the class the sample belongs to using`.argmax()`

from the NumPy library. The index corresponds to our class encoded as an integer. - use the
`.classification_report()`

method from the scikit-learn library to calculate all the metrics.

```
import numpy as np
from sklearn.metrics import classification_report
yhat_classes = np.argmax(my_model.predict(my_test), axis = -1)
y_true = np.argmax(my_test_labels, axis=1)
print(classification_report(y_true, yhat_classes))
```