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Mongoose Fundamentals

Mongoose is a JavaScript library that provides methods to interact with a MongoDB database. Mongoose translates JavaScript objects (JSON) to BSON data in a MongoDB database, and vice versa.

Mongoose interactions are based on Schema and Model declarations.

  • A Schema defines the shape of the documents within that collection.
  • A Model maps to a MongoDB collection and its documents.

Mongoose Schema

Remember, each record in a MongoDB database is a document with key/value pairs as entries. Using Mongoose’s Schema, we can set the structure of those documents dynamically.

Imagine you were creating a Schema for the database of a web-based poetry application where you could both write and publish poems. Each key in our poemSchema will define a property in our documents which will be cast to its associated SchemaType.

const poemSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ title: String })

Each document that is derived from the poemSchema above will have a title property with a string saved to it.

Mongoose will cast mismatched data types to the specified SchemaType. For example, if we entered the number 1 as a title for a poem, Mongoose would cast the entry so that it entered that database as a string "1". Using casting, Mongoose ensures that string properties are assigned strings values.



Imagine you are developing a role-playing game where users will be able to access magic items from a database. Create a Schema for the following magic items:

  • Create a const variable named magicItemSchema
  • Using new mongoose.Schema(), set magicItemSchema to create a path with the name item and the schema type for item to String
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