You don’t need to reinvent the wheel to create a robust back-end. Instead, most developers make use of frameworks which are collections of tools that shape the organization of your back-end and provide efficient ways of accomplishing otherwise difficult tasks.
There are numerous back-end frameworks from which developers can choose. Here are a few examples:
|Ruby on Rails||Ruby|
The collection of technologies used to create the front-end and back-end of a web application is referred to as a stack. This is where the term full-stack developer comes from; rather than working in either the front-end or the back-end exclusively, a full-stack developer works in both.
For example, the MEAN stack is a technology stack for building web applications that uses MongoDB, Express.js, AngularJS, and Node.js: MongoDB is used as the database, Node.js with Express.js for the rest of the back-end, and Angular is used as a front-end framework. While the LAMP Stack, sometimes considered the archetypal stack, uses Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP.